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Choosing Agriculture/Farming as A Career

Requisites - What kind of a person makes a successful farmer? Generally, he must be a good manager. He must have appropriate finances and resources with which to work. He must have access to a desirable range of alternatives in organization of his resources.
Effective management requires the proper balance among (1) planning. (2) organizing (3) directing (4) coordinating and (5) controlling.

Planning is the considered management of the elements to make an operation successful.

Organizing involves coordinating people and other resources into a working unit to achieve the desired results.

Directing means giving clear instructions. delegating proper authority, and encouraging and motivating people to want to perform effectively.

Coordinating requires establishing and maintaining operating at the desired levels through the appropriate channels.

Controlling involves checking on progress, interpreting results, and taking appropriate remedial action if this is required.

The amount. type. and quality of management required on an individual farm varies with the size of farm. The type of agriculture, the family or work situation, the degree of mechanization, and other factors. The difficulty of management varies also according to external factors. such as the cost and availability of inputs – machinery fertilizer, and so on - and on the efficiency of the marketing system. The problems of managing a given acreage are far different, for example_ in the center of the Corn Belt in America than they are in the Genetic Plain of India. Generally, management problems are simpler in a single-crop agriculture than they are in a multi-cropping situation. Generally, also they simpler on a small farm than on a large farm.

Specialization - In general. farming has become more specialized or less diversified as development has taken place. Technologies and large machines shift the comparative advantages in this direction. As the capacity of a system of machines increases, or as this capacity of increases relative to the amount of labor employed-economic advantage accrues increasingly toward fuller employment of the given system. The problem becomes one of using capital and machines to full capacity over longer periods of time, rather than maintaining a variety of crops or livestock enterprises to make fuller use of family or other labor. A given line of equipment on a good family-sized grain farm - including tractors, cultivators. seeding equipment. fertilizer spreaders. chemical sprayers, combines, trucks, storage and drying equipment - may cost well in excess of Rs. 20,00,000. and an advantage accrues to having it fully utilized.

The problem of the farm manager is to cover the net additional cost of any input with increased net returns. This can best be done in most highly developed situations b moving toward specialized enterprises of considerable scale, rather than by adding various other enterprises that might require their own specialized type of equipment. In many cases. of course, a given line of equipment will have complementary uses in more than one type of enterprise. Much the same kind of machinery is used in both corn and soybean cultivation. Thus. corn soybeans are complementary enterprises. and often both are grown on the same farm.

Opportunities - The opportunities and outlook for farming as a career of course differ from country to country and from region to region. Factors others than geography also are involved. The farming population has declined roughly in proportion to the rate of extent of economic development. Thus it has declined hardly at all in India or in tropical Africa, but it has by more than half in the United States and a few other economically advanced countries. Opportunities that exist are generally fewer but in many respects vastly superior to those of an earlier day. This is the case especially in the developed countries, it is to be hoped that it is, or will become. more true in the less developed nations.

Education - Education at university level and in extension programmes and training for young people in vocational agriculture have contributed greatly to people's adaptability to farming as a career. This is most evident in the developed countries. The known advances by the developed counties are being extended to other countries at various rates through introduction of new technologies and through educational programmes carried on by universities. As education takes hold and as resources are developed, the farm economy develops. This makes a contribution to the total welfare or living of the society. providing more abundant food and other necessities of life for people around the world.

Education in the area of Agricultural and Animal Sciences covers Agricultural Sciences. Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry (which along with Animal Product Technology such as Dairying is now known as Animal Science), Fisheries, Horticulture. Sericulture. and Forestry and Wild Life. Home Science is also considered a part of agricultural education and, therefore, most of the Home Science Colleges are affiliated to Agricultural Universities. In addition, Food Science and Technology is also treated as a subject allied to agricultural science.

Educational Opportunities

  1. Education is offered by agricultural universities at graduation, post-graduation and doctoral levels in eleven fields:
  2. Agriculture
  3. Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry (Animal Science)
  4. Agricultural Engineering.
  5. Home Science
  6. Fisheries Science
  7. Dairy science and Technology
  8. Agricultural Management (including Marketing. Banking and Cooperation)
  9. Forestry
  10. Horticulture 
  11. Sericulture and 
  12. Food Science and Technology. 

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